The Challenges

Each country has unique challenge themes and questions selected by the UNICEF Country Office.

Want to learn more about these challenges and how you can address them?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY / ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

Statement of need

Violent discipline—in the form of corporal punishment or verbal abuse—has a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical punishment and adopt positive, non-violent approaches to disciplining their children?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

STATEMENT OF NEED

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we encourage new parents to identify and adopt positive parenting behaviours and activities?

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

STATEMENT OF NEED

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we better educate mothers on the importance of proper early childhood nutrition, especially time spent breastfeeding?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

Statement of need

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we change perceptions amongst parents so that physical punishment is seen as socially unacceptable?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

Statement of need

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help children encourage healthier eating habits in their own homes?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

Statement of need

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classrooms or schoolyards?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

Statement of need

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help adolescent girls and boys encourage healthier eating habits and physical activity among their peers and in their homes?

L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

Statement of need

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families better connect to supportive networks and services in their communities?

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

Statement of need

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period. Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we better educate mothers on the importance of proper early childhood nutrition, especially time spent breastfeeding?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

Statement of need

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.
Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classroom or schoolyards?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

Statement of need

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we better educate mothers on the importance of proper early childhood nutrition, especially time spent breastfeeding?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can young people play a role in encouraging and influencing governments to create and finance health systems where even the most marginalized and disadvantaged women and children get the health care they need?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

SEXUAL VIOLENCE

Statement of need

Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, sexual violence is a common childhood experience and survivors may suffer from a range of lasting psychological, emotional and physical effects.

Despite its prevalence, sexual violence is shrouded in secrecy. Very few incidents are ever reported or disclosed. Widely experienced by both boys and girls, these violent acts are most often committed by people that are well known to them: family members, neighbors, friends and/or romantic partners.

Identifying, rejecting and/or reporting unwanted sexual advances–particularly in environments where men may feel that sex is an entitlement, an expression of power or a marker of masculinity–can be extremely difficult. In many cultures, discussing the subject of sex remains taboo and victims of sexual violence often feel too ashamed to speak out about it, especially when the victims are boys.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we empower girls and boys to feel confident enough to say no to unwanted sexual advances?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

Statement of need

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families better connect to supportive networks and services in their communities?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

Statement of need

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classrooms or schoolyards?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

Statement of need

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we change perceptions among students so that bullying is recognized as destructive instead of ‘cool’?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

Statement of need

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical punishment and adopt positive, non-violent approaches to disciplining their children?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help citizens monitor their government’s public health spending in ways that encourage responsive government action?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

STATEMENT OF NEED

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can schools and young people actively discourage bullying on social media?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical punishment and adopt positive, non-violent approaches to disciplining their children?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

Statement of need

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

In Lao People’s Democratic Republic:

  • 76% of children age 2-14 are subject to at least one form of psychological aggression or physical punishment from an adult in their household
  • 8% of children age 2-14 experience severe physical punishment from an adult in their household
  • 42% of adults believe physical punishment is necessary to properly raise a child
  • Violent discipline is high across all educational levels of household heads and wealth quintiles

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical and emotional punishment and adopt positive and non-violent approaches to discipline their children?
  • How can we change perceptions and attitudes among parents who believe physical punishment is necessary to properly discipline a child?
  • How can we support school environment to be free of corporal punishment and related disciplines?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

Statement of need

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classrooms or schoolyards?
  • How can schools and young people actively discourage bullying on social media?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t
L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

Statement of need

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families better connect to supportive networks and services in their communities?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

STATEMENT OF NEED

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can schools and young people actively discourage bullying on social media?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we change perceptions amongst parents so that physical punishment is seen as socially unacceptable?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

SEXUAL VIOLENCE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, sexual violence is a common childhood experience and survivors may suffer from a range of lasting psychological, emotional and physical effects.

Despite its prevalence, sexual violence is shrouded in secrecy. Very few incidents are ever reported or disclosed. Widely experienced by both boys and girls, these violent acts are most often committed by people that are well known to them: family members, neighbors, friends and/or romantic partners.

Identifying, rejecting and/or reporting unwanted sexual advances–particularly in environments where men may feel that sex is an entitlement, an expression of power or a marker of masculinity–can be extremely difficult. In many cultures, discussing the subject of sex remains taboo and victims of sexual violence often feel too ashamed to speak out about it, especially when the victims are boys.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we help parents teach their children the difference between touching that is acceptable, and touching that is not acceptable?

L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

STATEMENT OF NEED

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we encourage new parents to identify and adopt positive parenting behaviours and activities?

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

STATEMENT OF NEED

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we better educate mothers on the importance of proper early childhood nutrition, especially time spent breastfeeding?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

STATEMENT OF NEED

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classrooms or schoolyards?
  • How can schools and young people actively discourage bullying on social media?
  • How can we change perceptions among students so that bullying is recognized as destructive instead of ‘cool’?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical punishment and adopt positive, non-violent approaches to disciplining their children?
  • How can we change perceptions amongst parents so that physical punishment is seen as socially unacceptable?
  • How can we renew and strengthen positive attachments between parents and their teenage children?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

SEXUAL VIOLENCE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, sexual violence is a common childhood experience and survivors may suffer from a range of lasting psychological, emotional and physical effects.

Despite its prevalence, sexual violence is shrouded in secrecy. Very few incidents are ever reported or disclosed. Widely experienced by both boys and girls, these violent acts are most often committed by people that are well known to them: family members, neighbors, friends and/or romantic partners.

Identifying, rejecting and/or reporting unwanted sexual advances–particularly in environments where men may feel that sex is an entitlement, an expression of power or a marker of masculinity–can be extremely difficult. In many cultures, discussing the subject of sex remains taboo and victims of sexual violence often feel too ashamed to speak out about it, especially when the victims are boys.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we empower girls and boys to feel confident enough to say no to unwanted sexual advances?
  • How might we help parents teach their children the difference between touching that is acceptable, and touching that is not acceptable?
  • How can we support adults to challenge each other when they see inappropriate behaviors?

Challenges--Universal-Health-Coverage--(UNICENYHQ1993-0267_LeMoyne)

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY/ ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTH SERVICES

Statement of need

Women and children often do not receive the health services they need due to lack of personal finances. Without savings accounts or assets, relatively minor healthcare costs can plunge already-poor families into even deeper cycles of poverty.

Women and children, in particular, need to access a wide range of preventive and curative health services throughout their lives–from safe pregnancy services, to immunizations, to treatments for infectious diseases (e.g. malaria and HIV) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes, mental health and cancer). If people have to pay directly for these services out of their own pockets, then the poorest members of society are unable to access the potentially life-saving services they need.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can young people play a role in encouraging and influencing governments to create and finance health systems where even the most marginalized and disadvantaged women and children get the health care they need?
  • How can we help citizens monitor their government’s public health spending in ways that encourage responsive government action
  • How can we help families share feedback and opinions on the quality of health services that they receive?

[NAME CHANGED], On 12 March 2016, an 8-year-old girl places her hand on her 6-year-old brother’s shoulder, while chatting outside their home at a shelter in the Philippines. They and their older sister, Rosalyn, are among 7 siblings who were rescued during a cyber crime police raid police 6 years ago when their parents were caught forcing the two oldest girls to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuseshows in their home. Despite her young age, Rosalyn, now 17, has assumed the role of mother to her younger siblings at the shelter.

Rosalyn remembers her childhood fondly until her parents lost their jobs at a local factory. Uneducated, they were unable to find work and the family soon sank into extreme poverty. A neighbour offered Rosalyn the opportunity to earn money by participating in live online pornography shows. She never received money directly but noticed that her family no longer went hungry. Her younger sister began to perform online as well, and the family’s economic condition improved to the point that their parents were able to purchase their own computer system. The parents, under the direction of the neighbour, continued to force their two older daughters to participate in live streaming of child sexual abuse in front of a webcam in their home. The parents are now in prison and the case is in court, pending a decision at the end of April. The youngest children do not remember their parents and Rosalyn feels conflicted and responsible for the destruction of her family. It took her a long time to understand that what had happened to her was ‘abuse’ since the exploitation of children through the live streaming of sexual acts before a webcam has been normalized in their community. The children were placed in a shelter away from their community, where they receive counselling and support. Rosalyn and her older brother are now going to university and the younger children attend school. Rosalyn is an advocate for online safety, and speaks t

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

BULLYING

STATEMENT OF NEED

Bullying threatens the learning opportunities and positive development of children throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In most countries, children spend the majority of their days in school. However, for many children, schools are sites of violence. A recent study by the World Health Organization found that, typically, 1 in 3 boys and girls in the region were bullied during one or more days last month. Many of these children will experience bullying again and again throughout their school years.

Though often hidden, the effects of bullying are far-reaching. Bullying destroys childhoods. It causes anxiety and depression, and reduces academic motivation and achievement. Linked to lowered classroom attendance and participation, bullying restricts children’s learning and future opportunities.

Too often, bullying becomes a learned behavior or ‘social norm’: children bully their peers because they see others doing so, and wish to be part of the group. Given the lasting damage caused by bullying, actions that respond to bullying when it occurs are not enough–prevention is also urgently needed.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we better equip teachers and students to intervene when they witness bullying in their classrooms or schoolyards?
  • How can schools and young people actively discourage bullying on social media?
  • How can we change perceptions among students so that bullying is recognized as destructive instead of ‘cool’?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

VIOLENT DISCIPLINE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Violent disciplinein the form of corporal punishment or verbal abusehas a negative effect on a child’s development and well-being that can continue into adulthood.

According to UNICEF global databases, 3 out of 4 children throughout the Asia-Pacific region experience violent discipline in their homes and classrooms. Not only is this an ineffective means of correcting behaviour, it is also linked to academic problems and mental disorders amongst children and increased use of violence and criminality in adults. While most adults in the region do not think that physical punishment is a necessary form of punishment, the vast majority of parents nevertheless continue the practice today.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help parents to abandon physical punishment and adopt positive, non-violent approaches to disciplining their children?
  • How can we change perceptions amongst parents so that physical punishment is seen as socially unacceptable?
  • How can we renew and strengthen positive attachments between parents and their teenage children?

VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN

SEXUAL VIOLENCE

STATEMENT OF NEED

Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, sexual violence is a common childhood experience and survivors may suffer from a range of lasting psychological, emotional and physical effects.

Despite its prevalence, sexual violence is shrouded in secrecy. Very few incidents are ever reported or disclosed. Widely experienced by both boys and girls, these violent acts are most often committed by people that are well known to them: family members, neighbors, friends and/or romantic partners.

Identifying, rejecting and/or reporting unwanted sexual advances–particularly in environments where men may feel that sex is an entitlement, an expression of power or a marker of masculinity–can be extremely difficult. In many cultures, discussing the subject of sex remains taboo and victims of sexual violence often feel too ashamed to speak out about it, especially when the victims are boys.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we empower girls and boys to feel confident enough to say no to unwanted sexual advances?
  • How might we help parents teach their children the difference between touching that is acceptable, and touching that is not acceptable?
  • How can we support adults to challenge each other when they see inappropriate behaviors?

L. Mijiddorj holds his 20-month-old daughter, M. Sarangoo, in the ‘bagh’ (sub-district) of Sumber in the ‘soum’ (district) of Arbulag in the northern Khövsgöl ‘Aimag’ (province). Mr. Mijiddorj provides essential care for Sarangoo while her mother, J. Enkhtuya, works at the local clinic as a ‘bagh feldsher’, a government health worker who provides critical services for nomadic herder communities. [#1 IN SEQUENCE OF FOUR]

From 8 to 18 October 2012 in Mongolia, a measles and rubella vaccination campaign was held as part of the 2011–2016 National Programme on Communicable Diseases. The campaign reached 508,826 children aged 3–14, representing 95.5 per cent of children in that age group. Children of nomadic herder families (almost 24 per cent of the country’s children) were also immunized despite the challenges of reaching their remote homes. Mongolia’s campaign is part of the Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Worldwide, measles remains a leading cause of death among young children, but thanks to the Initiative, these deaths decreased by 71 per cent from 2001 to 2011. Mongolia also enjoys high coverage rates for other routine child vaccinations, while virtually all women receive professional antenatal and birthing support. Such factors have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction in under-five child deaths since 1990. Additionally, 94 per cent of primary-school-aged boys and 96 per cent of girls attend school; secondary school attendance is 83 per cent for boys and 88 per cent for girls. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including access to improved water sources and sanitation, especially in rural communities. Climate change and economic changes have also dramatically increased the migration of formerly nomadic families to urban areas, creating new cha

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

INVESTING IN COGNITIVE CAPITAL

STATEMENT OF NEED

Over the last two decades, economic growth has substantially reduced severe poverty in most Asian and Pacific countries. But increased wealth has also led to inequality and deprivation, particularly for children. Investments in children, especially during their earliest years, are critical–proven to strengthen their cognitive ability, health and development, and so lead to increased economic productivity for countries. Yet despite this, investment in early childhood development and learning across Asia-Pacific remains low.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can we help children access pre-school centres in their communities?
  • How can we help families better connect to supportive networks and services in their communities?
  • How can we encourage new parents to identify and adopt positive parenting behaviours and activities?

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

NUTRITION

STATEMENT OF NEED

Children deprived of good nutrition, health care and education lack the future opportunities to share fully in the social and economic life of their communities and nations.

The first thousand days of a child’s life represents a critical window for nutritional and behavioural interventions, as children experience rapid physical and mental growth during this period.  Without proper nourishment, children are more vulnerable to infections or developing diabetes and other non-communicable diseases associated with obesity. They fall sick more often and take a longer time to recover–creating healthcare expenses that are often unaffordable for families. In schools, malnutrition–whether in the form of undernutrition or obesity–limits a child’s learning potential and opportunities by lowering attendance and making classroom concentration difficult. These effects continue into adulthood, reducing productivity at work and, along with it, potential ‘earning power’.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How might we better educate mothers on the importance of proper early childhood nutrition, especially time spent breastfeeding?
  • How can we make nutritious food more easily accessible in public schools?
  • How can we help children encourage healthier eating habits in their own homes?

SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR FAMILIES

AGING POPULATION

STATEMENT OF NEED

As Asia-Pacific’s population ages, the burden of care will fall on the younger generation–leading to a fall in productivity and increased poverty for already disadvantaged and marginalized groups.

In families that are unable to afford or access supportive services, one or more parents may be forced out of the workplace to care for elderly relatives or to frequently withdraw their children from school to do the same. Over the long-term, these decreased household income, education and employment opportunities will lead to reduced national productivity and economic stagnation.

CHALLENGE QUESTIONS

  • How can families be supported to access available services to help care for their elderly?
  • How can elderly care services be financed and provided so that work and school life is not disrupted due to the burden of care?
  • How might technology contribute to improving the quality of life for elderly family members?